Friday, October 5, 2018

LPWAN - Fundamentals of IoT (Part 1)

A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) or low-power wide-area (LPWA) network or low-power network (LPN) is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long range communications at a low bit rate among things (connected objects), such as sensors operated on a battery.
LPWAN offers multi-year battery lifetime and is designed for sensors and applications that need to send small amounts of data over long distances a few times per hour from varying environments.

LoRa and LoraWAN belong to the category of non-cellular LPWAN wireless communication network protocols and players, operating in the license-free spectrum. Other technologies that operate in the license-free frequency bands include Sigfox, Ingenu and several more.
A complete list of Wireless IoT protocols may be found here.
While LoRA, LoRaWAN operates on open licensed-free spectrums, others may operate on licensed frequencies. Accordingly, LPWANs may often be classified as licensed and licensed-free LPWAN ecosystems.
LoRa and Sigfox fall under non-cellular IoT technologies. NB-IoT (NarrowBand IoT) falls under cellular IoT category, and transmits over cellular frequency .
Note: It is possible for LoRa(or any LP WAN device) to transmit over large distances with low power, since the laws of physics dictate, that in order to transmit over a large distance; you either need to increase the power, or reduce the bandwidth. Since LoRa embedded sensors transmit over large distances, but use low power (batteries), its bandwidth is greatly limited.



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